The Fourth Crusade

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The Taking of Constantinople by Palma Le Jeune (1544–1620)

So. Let us briefly turn away from today’s momentous events and bask in the warm and comforting glow emitted by the distant past. A period so remote that in our house it is referred to as ‘days of yore’ (which is much longer ago than ‘the olden days’). The period of the Fourth Crusade.

Now, the Fourth Crusade, which was led by an Italian count, Boniface of Montferrat, was intended to regain the Holy Land by attacking through Egypt. The crusaders gathered in Venice in 1202 and readied to sail for Cairo. Unfortunately, they couldn’t pay their debts to the Venetians (who were supplying the ships and sailors for the expedition). After some negotiation it was agreed the crusaders would harry Venice’s competitors on the Adriatic.

In 1202 the crusaders arrived at the city of Zara (present-day Zadar) which was independent but under the protection of the King of Hungary. Pope Innocent III had forbidden the crusaders to attack any Christian cities: the leaders of the crusade chose to conceal his letter from their followers and stormed the city.

After that bad start the story becomes even murkier, as the crusaders became involved in the politics of the Byzantine Empire, most probably for money. They sailed for Byzantium (Constantinople). In April 1204, after a complex series of events, the crusaders attacked and took the city, sacking it for three days.

“O City, City, eye of all cities, universal boast, supramundane wonder, nurse of churches, leader of the faith, guide of Orthodoxy, beloved topic of orations, the abode of every good thing! Oh City, that hast drunk at the hand of the Lord the cup of his fury! O City, consumed by fire…” (Niketas Choniates)

The crusaders set up a Latin kingdom centred on Byzantium. Ultimately, the Latin kingom was overthrown and Byzantine rule restored, but the Byzantines had been fatally weakened and they proved unable to resist the advance of the Seljuk and then Ottoman Turks. The city fell in 1453, and most of the Balkans were overrun by the Ottoman Empire.

Only a very small proportion of the crusaders ever reached the Holy Land.

But that was then. In the present day we can be confident that no ideological crusade which starts out to ‘liberate’ a land can ever lead to disaster and impoverishment for millions across Europe.

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